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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN •7^ THE LIBRARY OHHt yi-JX SEP 11 1933 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS The Races of Mankind An Introduction to Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall BY HENRY FIELD Assistant Curator of Physical Anthropology Preface by Berthold Laufer Curator, Department of Anthropology Introduction by Sir Arthur Keith Conservator and Professor in the Royal College of Surgeons of England 9 Plates in Photogravure and 1 Plan of the Hall Anthropology Leaflet 30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY CHICAGO 1933 The Anthropological Leaflets of Field Museum are designed to give brief, non-technical accounts of some of the more interesting beliefs, habits and customs of the races whose life is illustrated in the Museum's exhibits. ANTHROPOLOGICAL LEAFLETS ISSUED TO DATE 1. The Chinese Gateway $ .10 2. Philippine Forge Group 10 3. Japanese Collections 20 4. New Guinea Masks 15 5. The Thunder Ceremony of the Pawnee 20 6. The Sacrifice to the Morning Star by the Skidi Pawnee 10 7. Purification of the Sacred Bundles, a Ceremony of the Pawnee 10 8. Annual Ceremony of the Pawnee Medicine Men . .10 9. The Use of Sago in New Guinea 10 10. Use of Human Skulls and Bones in Tibet ... .10 11. The Japanese New Year's Festival, Games and Pastimes 15 12. Japanese Costume .20 13. Gods and Heroes of Japan 15 14. Japanese Temples and Houses 15 15. Use of Tobacco among North American Indians . .20 16. Use of Tobacco in Mexico and South America . . .15 17. Use of Tobacco in New Guinea and Neighboring Regions 10 18. Tobacco and Its Use in Asia 25 19. Introduction of Tobacco into Europe 25 20. The Japanese Sword and Its Decoration 15 21. Ivory in China 60 22. Insect- Musicians and Cricket Champions of China . .40 23. Ostrich Egg-shell Cups of Mesopotamia and the Ostrich in Ancient and Modern Times ... .30 24. The Indian Tribes of the Chicago Region with Special Reference to the Illinois and the Potawatomi 25 25. The Civilization of the Mayas (Second Edition) . .60 26. The Early History of Man 25 27. The Giraffe in History and Art 60 28. The Field Museum - Oxford University Expedition to Kish, Mesopotamia, 1923-1929 50 29. Tobacco and Its Use in Africa 25 30. The Races of Mankind 25 STEPHEN C. SIMMS, Director May. 1933 OF Ul unmmii of mmi Leaflet 30 Plate 1 BRONZE GROUP SYMBOLIZING UNITY OF MANKIND Heroic size THE LfBRARy OF THE SEP 11 1933 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS CONTENTS PAOB Preface by Berthold Laufer 3 Introduction by Sir Arthur Keith 7 Human Biology , 13 Description of Races 17 I. Africa ' 17 II. Europe 21 III. Asia 22 IV. America 31 V. Oceania 33 Bibliography 37 Plan of Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3) . . 38 List of Sculptures by Malvina Hoffman 39 Field Museum of Natural History DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY Chicago. 1933 Leaflet Numbeb SO Copyright 1933 by Field Museum of Natural History PREFACE Plans for a hall to present to the public the biological problems of mankind were formulated in the Department of Anthropology under my direction as far back as 1915. This date is mentioned for no other reason than to em- phasize the difficulty of such an undertaking and to point out that in the course of the eighteen years which have lapsed between conception and completion the plan was carefully considered, frequently modified and finally carried out after long and mature deliberation and thorough study of every detail. Hall 3, which is devoted to the Races of Mankind, is located on the north side in the east wing of the build- ing, and is named Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall in honor of the late Chauncey Keep, a highly valued member of the Museum's Board of Trustees from 1915 until his death in 1929. A legacy of $50,000 left by him to the Museum has been applied to the hall and its contents. A generous share in the cost of the bronzes has been assumed by Mr. Marshall Field. Other contributors are Mrs. Stanley Field and Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe. Sir Arthur Keith, who has rendered many valuable services to Malvina Hoffman in her work and who has been good enough to write an introduction to this leaflet, is a leading authority on anthropology and an expert on the reconstruction of prehistoric man from fragments or fossil remains. He was professor of comparative anatomy at the Royal Institution (1917-23) and became conservator of the Museum and professor at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1908. He was secretary and later president of 4 Field Museum op Natural History the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and president of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1913-17). He was knighted in 1921, and was designated president of the British Association in 1927. He is the author of numerous treatises and many books, as, for instance, Human Embryology and Morphology (4th ed., 1921); Antiquity of Man (2 vols., 7th ed., 1929); Engines of the Human Body (2nd ed., 1925); Nationality and Race (1919); and Religion of a Darwinist (1925). Anthropology is a young science, its problems are complex and manifold, and there is still a wide divergence of opinion as to methods, conclusions, and results. Many fundamental subjects have been treated just at the surface, as, for instance, the question as to what is normal or abnormal in the human body and mind. The favorite classification of the human species according to skin color has not yet passed beyond the stage of common experience. A solid technique for the study of skin color and its nomenclature has not yet been developed; in speaking of white, yellow, black, and red men we follow merely a popular terminology and take surface impressions for granted, while as a matter of fact the color variability of the complexion in individuals is almost infinite and no one is either strictly white or yellow or black or red. ' Much harm has been done by the general confusion of the terms race, nationality, language, and culture, all of which are entirely distinct. The best known school example illustrating the application of these terms is presented by our Negroes in America. As a biological type our Negroes belong to the African or "black" race and will always remain within this division; even inter- marriage with whites will not modify their racial charac- teristics to any marked degree. As to language they have adopted English in North America and therefore belong to the English-speaking group of peoples, and Spanish or Portuguese in Central and South America, while they have forgotten the Bantu speech of their forefathers. As Leaflet 30 Plate II BRONZE STATUE OF SHILLUK WARRIOR, EAST AFRICA Life size 'fit LmAHi Of r»£ WirfflSJiy OF lUdini Preface 5 to culture they have adapted themselves to their new environment, have adopted the Christian religion, and live in the same manner as other Americans, while African survivals of culture have almost disappeared. We cannot speak of a Negro nationality in America as the Negroes do not form a political unit, but live sporadically scattered in the white communities. It is chiefly social and legal restriction and segregation that keeps their race consciousness alive. We can observe every day in our country that immigrants frorii Europe exchange their own language for English and that their descendants, already in the first generation, become oblivious of the speech of their fathers. The Bulgars who now speak a Slavic language were in their origin a tribe of the Turkish stock of peoples. The Manchus, who issued from the Tungusian stock, dropped their own language after the conquest of China and evolved into Chinese in speech, customs, and habits. The majority of Jews no longer converses in Hebrew, but is thoroughly assimilated to the speech and environment of the country in which they reside. Language therefore is an unsafe criterion for the classification of peoples and, while it is the foundation of all that constitutes nationality and is a part of our cultural heritage, a close examination of historical facts is required to determine the linguistic relationship of a nation. One of the most misunderstood and misused terms is the word Aryan. In its origin this word belonged to the Sanskrit and Iranian languages and designated the Indian and Iranian stock as a unit before their division and migration into India and Iran, respectively. When the linguistic relationship of Sanskrit and Iranian with Greek, Latin, Slavic, Germanic, and Celtic was discovered, the term Aryan was sometimes applied by European philolo- gists to this entire family of languages, but is now fortu- nately replaced by the term Indo-European. There is, however, no such thing as an Aryan race, nor are blond hair, fair skin, and blue eyes characteristic of Indo- 6 Field Museum of Natural History Europeans. On the contrary, there is no blondness among the people of India and Iran, while it equally occurs among Semites, Turks, Finno-Ugrians, and Central- Asiatics. The most perfect specimen of what is popularly but wrongly styled "Aryan" I met in an Osman from Constantinople. A great scholar, Max Miiller of Oxford, expressed the opinion, "To me an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who would speak of a dolicho- cephalic dictionary or a brachycephahc grammar." Race means breed and refers to the physical traits acquired by heredity, in contrast with experience and the total complex of habits and thoughts acquired from the group to which we belong; in other words, the social herit- age called culture. The behavior of a nation is not deter- mined by its biological origin, but by its cultural traditions. With the advance of our civilization and the white man's expansion all over the globe many primitive tribes are now doomed to extinction and are gradually dying out. It may be questioned whether any vestiges of the life and culture of primitive man will have remained on this earth by the time the following century arrives. Many a vanishing race will continue to live only in the statues and busts displayed in this hall. Anthropology is essentially a science of human under- standing and conciliation based on profound human sympathies that extend alike to all races of mankind. Solely a mind endowed with the gift of such sympathies was capable of creating the sculptures arrayed in this hall, which are pervaded by a refined and humane spirit. If the visitors to the hall will receive the impression that race prejudice is merely the outcome of ignorance and will leave it with their sympathy for mankind deepened and strengthened and with their interest in the study of mankind stimulated and intensified, our efforts will not have been futile and will have fulfilled their purpose. Berthold Laufer I INTRODUCTION The human family at present is very large and very complex. It numbers 1,800,000,000 or more; it is scattered over the face of the whole earth, and is divided into an exceedingly great number of forms, breeds, and races. How can such a vast assortment of diverse individuals be given a true and effective representation in a museimi? According to established precedent, human skulls, skele- tons, photographs, charts, casts, and models brought home from all lands fill the exhibition cases of such a hall in museums. And such collections no doubt prove of great value to professional students of anthropology, but exhibits of this nature are likely to repel rather than to attract visitors to the study of mankind. Field Museum has adopted the sensible plan of giving the races of mankind a plastic representation in the new hall devoted to this subject. This plan was initiated four years ago when Malvina Hoffman was commissioned to proceed to those lands where native races are at their purest and there register in clay and finish in bronze the living lineaments of selected types. The sculptor has made the scheme adopted an undisputed success. Her representations of humanity are works both of beauty and of truth. Those who have followed Malvina Hoffman's career were convinced at the outset that there would be no risk of failure. The hands which have fixed in living clay the motions and grace of the dancing Pavlova could not fail to catch the essential traits of race — catch them by her art far more effectively than any anthropologist could have done by calipers, tape, and camera. The mono- graph devoted by Arsene Alexandre to the art of Malvina Hoffman and published in Paris (1930) contains reproduc- tions of certain unintentional studies of race. In search of fresh fields in which to exercise her gifts of portraiture, 8 Field Museum of Natural History Malvina Hoffman sought for types in Africa and in the Far East. She created an African slave carved in wood, a black marble bust of a Senegalese soldier, and the mask of a Javanese woman — works of art of the highest merit. In these sculptures the anthropologist finds triumphant expressions of race. Intuition had transformed the artist into an anthropologist; the mirror of her imagination caught from her sitters and held only the essential traits of race. I have used the word "intuition," but it must not be supposed that Malvina Hoffman obtains her results easily; her portraits are purchased by an exhausting expenditure of mental power. She is a great sculptor who lavishes her art in the service of anthropology. The fact must not be overlooked that a knowledge of physical and racial anthropology is not confined to those who work in museums and universities. We are all anthropologists; we became so as soon as we could recog- nize the features of the mother who suckled us. Our anthropological knowledge grew as we came to know the facial traits and bodily habits of our family circle. Year after year we have continued, quite unconsciously, to add to our gallery of mental portraiture. The community in which we are born and bred provides us with our anthro- pological standards. If into our community there should stray people from distant lands, from Africa, India, or China, there is no need for us to measure their heads, faces, or bodies in order to recognize their race. The eye, at a single glance, picks out the racial features more certainly than could a band of trained anthropologists, who depend on measurements to distinguish Negro, Indian, or Chinaman from European. The number of features we take into momentary consideration as we make a racial diagnosis is inconceivably great. The aim of the professional anthropologist is to tabulate these racial features and to measure them; but so numerous are they, so shifting and indeterminate in nature, that scientific measurement can never rival the accuracy and Leaflet 30 Plate III IFKKH BRONZE GROUP OF ITURI FOREST PYGMIES, CENTRAL AFRICA Life size OF THE tmV^H OF ILUIOlt Introduction 9 completeness of the rule of thumb method practised by the man in the street. The artist who secures a striking likeness does so because he or she is an anthropologist by intuition. We professional anthropologists can never hope to obtain by mere measurements the accuracy of racial portraiture which comes by instinct to the true artist. I hold that the busts, figures, and groups modeled by Malvina Hoffman are priceless registers of anthro- pological fact and in the full sense of the term are scientific docimients as well as works of art. Certainly I am far from decrying anthropology as a science. Anthropologists must make precise measure- ments. Only by adopting such methods can there be a real advance in the study of human races. But I do contend with all my might that scientific anthropology must depend on the eye of the true artist for the recognition and embodiment of racial types. Visitors to Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall will find in the bronzes on exhibition there the finest racial portraiture that the world has seen. Thus a permanent abode has been provided for repre- sentative members of the human family in Field Museum of Natural History. What a motley of types our hmnan family is! And yet, as we pass round the hall and make the acquaintance of the chosen representatives of living races, we see that amid what at first seems unredeemable confusion there emerge three main types of humanity — the white or European, the yellow or Mongolian, the black or Negro. The recognition of these three prevailing types and the perception of the differences which separate them, as well as the similarities which unite them, repre- sent the central crux of modem anthropology. Malvina Hoffman has given to this crux or problem a concrete representation which rightly occupies the central space of the hall. On the top of a three-sided bronze pillar is placed a terrestrial globe. On each side, under the globe, is placed the statue of a man — a Nordic, an East-Asiatic, and an African. The types have been chosen most 10 Field Museum op Natural History aptly. The artist has shown no favoritism. The three types have received equal treatment. It is right that this group should hold a central position in the hall, for no one can look at those three figures without asking the question, Why this diversity of racial type? For whether we accept the Biblical account of man's creation or his emergence by evolutionary means, we have to believe in the original unity of mankind. Out of unity has come the diversity portrayed by the statues in the central group. Critics may remind me that the human types which prevailed in Egypt five thousand years ago are still recognizable in our modern world. This is so. But in turn I would ask my critics to go back fifty thousand years, and what then? The answer is given in Hall C, devoted to the Stone Age of the Old World, in Field Museum. The prehistoric human types there exhibited differ pro- foundly from their modem representatives. A tendency to change is inherent in human flesh; in reality, the world of humanity is not the same for two consecutive days. Man to a higher degree than most animals is subject to the laws of evolutionary change. When we accept the laws of human mutability, the interest of the racial types portrayed by Malvina Hoffman grows upon us. Let us take her representatives of the Mongolian family, to which has been assigned an important section of the exhibition area. The family occupies, or did occupy, a large part of the earth — eastern Asia, where the type now finds its most distinctive characterization, farther India, the Malay Archipelago, many islands of the Pacific, and the entire American continent. The central representative types from China, Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, and Japan are well chosen and excellently executed. However, it is not these, but the more aberrant types from the periphery of the Mongolian area, which excite the interest of the anthropologist. In the graceful Hawaiian surf-rider and in the male types from Hawaii and Samoa the Mongolian features are somewhat masked. Introduction 11 and yet in the Pacific we find every link that unites them to the purer types of eastern Asia. Particularly interesting are the two representative Ainus. One is the bearded Mongol with whom all are familiar. The other repre- sentative Ainu might be a Samoan or a Maori as well. Mongolian humanity seems to have evolved from a darker prototype. Again, in the Jakuns of the Malay Peninsula we recognize the marks of the true Mongol. But what of the Sakai of the same land? In the splendid head modeled from life by Malvina Hoffman we observe a prevalence of African and of Australoid characters, and yet withal is there not also apparent something Malayan or Mongolian? The variability of the Mongolian type in America is also brought out by the exhibits in the Hall of the Races of Mankind. The typical Mongolian features may be unmistakable, as in the Eskimo, or they may be almost completely replaced by Caucasoid features as in the Sioux and Blackfoot Indians. How are we to account for the range of variations which prevails within a single type of humanity? The easiest solution is to suppose that variations have arisen from the mixing of pure breeds, but even if we accept this explanation for some of the aberrant forms just mentioned, we still have to account for the appearance of the original or pure types. To explain satisfactorily the racial problems so realistically and so truthfully presented to us in this hall, we have to accept as a truth the prevalence of the laws of evolution in the world of humanity. It was when Malvina Hoffman's enthusiasm came to portray the racial types of Africa that it reached its highest and happiest flights. The central type of Africa is represented by a Senegal Negro beating a drum. The genial Batwa youth from the Belgian Congo and the graceful dancing girl of the Sara tribe are close akin to this central type. The placid and serene face of the Abyssinian girl and the fuzzy-headed Somali shown in a bust display an early affinity of the African type with 12 ' Field Museum of Natural History those of Arabia and of India. The Bushman, the most aberrant of all African types, is very artistically conceived. The Bushman woman and her baby appeal with equal force to the student of races, the professional artist, and the lover of mankind. When we have noted the exceedingly great number of variations taken by black-skinned races and how aberrant some of these African types are, such as the Bushman and Ituri Pygmies, we realize how fertile the African continent has been in the production of human breeds. In speaking of the white, yellow, and black types of humanity represented in the central group, I pointed out the similarities which unite these types as well as the differences which separate them. During many thousands of years the world of humanity has been in the throes of evolution, and these are the dominant types which have emerged. I do not wish to leave the impression that I regard the choice samples of humanity now assembled in the Hall of the Races of Mankind as mere illustrations of the manner in which the laws of evolution work out their effects on mankind. To me every type is nature's attempt to give the world a happier and better kind of humanity. Sir Arthur Keith Conservator and Professor in the Royal College of Surgeons of England, Corresponding Member of Field Museum CO ^ i pa . CO Of Tttt THE RACES OF MANKIND HUMAN BIOLOGY The bronze figures and busts in this hall were selected as representatives of the more important divisions of the human species, particular emphasis being laid on primitive and lesser known peoples of the worid. The principle of arrangement in the hall is geographical and may be ascertained from the plan shown on page 38. The central group (Plate I), which is intended to symbolize the unity of mankind, man as a well-defined, uniform species, is composed of three statues of heroic size repre- senting a white, a yellow, and a black man standing beneath a large globe upon which the five continents as the habitat of the human species are outlined. Each embodies the highest physical qualities of his race. The science of human biology, or, as it is also called, physical anthropology, deals with the structure of the human body; the distinctive physical characters of the vari- ous racial divisions of mankind; the interrelationship of the peoples of the world; and the geographical distri- bution of man. In the study of the anatomy and physi- ology of man, therefore, he is regarded as an animal species, and research is based on living people, fossilized human remains, and both living and fossil animals closely related to man. The study of somatic structure can be divided into two parts — the physical characters of the living person and the anatomy of the skeleton. Upon examination, the bodily structure of man differs so slightly from that of the higher apes that he must be classed in the same general division of the animal kingdom, where he occupies the special subdivision Hominidae. While there are numerous schemes of classifying the various races of mankind, it is desirable to recognize three main divisions based on the color of the skin and 13 14 Field Museum op Natural History the characters of the hair. The three groups are the Caucasian or white races, the Mongolian or yellow races of Asia, and the Negroid or black races of Africa. In order to define a race, and also for comparison of racial characters either in the same group or among divergent peoples, a series of measurements and observa- tions must be made. For example, if a comparative study of the stature of the northern and southern Chinese should be desired, it would be necessary to obtain by measurements the average standing height of a large number of individuals of both groups. The shape of the head forms one of the most important criteria for pre- liminary classification. The length and breadth of the head are obtained by means of special calipers. The ratio of the length to the breadth is expressed as a per- centage, which is known as the cephalic index. When the ratio is below 75 per cent the head is said to be long, and when above 80 per cent the term "round head" is applied. There are a number of measurements on the head and body which have been standardized, so that the data obtained can be used for comparative purposes. Other criteria are the color of the skin, hair, and eyes and the form of the nose, ears, and lips. The influence of heredity and the effects of environment are additional problems which are of great importance and require more profound study. Racial mixtures, the effects of disease on a popula- tion, artificial deformation of the head and other organs, growth changes, bodily functions such as the use and adaptation of special organs, for instance the hands and feet, are other problems of paramount significance. The physical characters which can be used for a preliminary racial analysis are the form, color, and quantity of the hair; the color of the skin; the shape of the head and face; and the character of the nose, eyes, mouth, and lips. The stature is also used as a valuable criterion of racial traits. Human Biology 16 The hair may be classified as straight, as among the Mongoloid peoples; wavy, as typified by Europeans; or woolly, as illustrated by the Negro. While there are infinite varieties and shades of hair color, they are generally classified as fair, dark, and black. Among the fair-haired peoples the Scandinavian group is perhaps the most con- spicuous, Negroes present a dark-haired example, and the Mongols are typical of the black-haired peoples. The variations in skin color naturally grade one into another, particularly where there is racial intermarriage, but three basic color groups — white, yellow and black — are recognized as principles of classification. There are three main types of head shapes — long, round, and intermediate. These divisions are based on the relation of the length of the skull to the breadth. For example, the head is termed long if the breadth is less than three-quarters of the length, and within this division are included North and South Europeans and the inhabitants of Africa. The round-headed peoples are typified by the Mongoloid group and the Alpine race of central Europe. In profile the face may project markedly forward from the line of the forehead, as among the Negroes (prognathism), in contrast to the normal projection among European peoples. In general, long-headed individuals have narrow faces, while broad faces are associated with round heads. There are, however, some notable excep- tions to this harmonic relation, as, for example, the long head and broad face of the Eskimo and the broad head and narrow face so characteristic of the Basque. The nose is a feature which has always attracted attention. In profile, noses are classified as long or short, concave, straight, or convex. The root may be pinched or broad; the nostrils may be narrow, medium, or broad. The relation of the length to the breadth of the nose is a valuable physical criterion. In general the white races 16 Field Museum op Natural History have narrow noses; the Negroes have the typical broad nose with flaring nostrils; and the Mongoloid group has an intermediate nasal index. The so-called Jewish nose is not tjrpical of the true Semites, as, for example, the Beduins of North Arabia, but appears to be a racial character inherited from the ancient Hittites. The variations in eye color make this character of little value as a racial trait. The shape of the opening is generally horizontal and widely open in Europeans, while in the Far East it is often almond-shaped, and a fold of skin, called the Mongolian fold, frequently covers the inner angle of the eye. The shape of the mouth and the thickness of the lips are often valuable criteria, since there is a wide range of variation from those of the European to the thick-lipped West African Negro. Stature is another character which possesses racial significance. Variations in standing height are governed by hereditary traits combined with environmental factors. For example, stunted peoples usually inhabit regions of the earth where the struggle for existence is keen, or heavily forested areas where there is an absence of sun- light. On the other hand, nomadic existence in a pleasant land appears to favor tall stature. For example, the Nil- otic Negroes, including the Shilluk (Plate II), are very tall, while the Eskimos belong to the medium short group. This brief introduction is followed by a general survey of the races of mankind. For the sake of clarity the peoples of each continent will be examined according to the geographical arrangement of the sculptures in the hall (Plan, p. 38). These are exhibited in the following order: Africa, Europe, Asia, America, and Oceania. Leaflet 30 Plate V ©f:m.n.h BRONZE STATUE OF VEDDA, CEYLON Life size THe LIBRART OF TH£ m:Bt:]i OF [lum DESCRIPTION OF RACES I. Africa The continent of Africa covers an area of 12,000,000 square miles, almost four times the size of the United States. The population has been roughly estimated at 150,000,000, but this is a vague approximation. About two-thirds of the continent — the forest zone comprising a western coastal strip and a large central area — is the habitat of true Negroes. These show many important local variations in physical appearance. The general physique of the African is well represented in the black man's statue in tKe central group. TRUE NEGROES The Negro is characterized by a dark skin color vary- ing from extremely dark brown to almost black, though perhaps the skin is never jet black, and the stature varies considerably according to locality. The Kru of Liberia, the Ibo of Nigeria, and the Ijaw of the Niger Delta are often mentioned as primitive physical Negro types. The West African coastal Negro is long-headed, of medium stature, extremely well developed, with a heavy torso and massive limbs. The arms are long and the legs short in comparison with the length of the trunk. In all Negroes the face is usually broad and massive, sometimes with a projecting chin. The nose is broad, and the lips are thick and everted. Dark eyes and woolly hair likewise are constant Negro features. The problems as to the origin of Negro types are too complex to be discussed here, yet the main branches of Negro stock may be mentioned. NEGROES OF THE UPPER NILE In order to account for this type, which is usually called Nilotic, a hypothesis regarding the intrusion of a foreign race is necessary. Anthropologists believe that migratory waves of people, called Hamites, penetrated 17 18 Field Museum op Natural History northeast Africa from a remote period long before the dawn of history. It is thought also that the crossing of these Hamitic intruders with the true Negro produced the Nilotic type. The Nilotic Negroes, if compared with true Negroes of West Africa, show greater stature, a far more slender build, and a refinement of physiognomy, usually in the form of a narrower nose and thinner lips. NEGROES OF NORTHEAST AFRICA In Kenya Colony are tribes whose physical type has been affected by intrusive Hamites. Here, as among the Nilotic Negroes, the true Negro physique has been modified in the direction of greater stature, a less massive build, and a refinement of the nose and mouth. These "Hamiticised" Negroes, of whom the Suk, the Masai, and the Nandi are examples, are referred to by some anthropologists as Half-Hamites. BUSHMEN AND HOTTENTOTS From a racial standpoint the Bushmen are the most interesting people south of equatorial Africa. At present they are mainly confined to the Kalahari Desert. The Bushmen possess short, frizzly hair which grows in separate tufts coiled into balls and because of its appearance is known as "peppercorn" hair. There is very little hair on the face and body. The skin ranges in color from yellow to olive, and becomes markedly wrinkled at an early age. The head is extremely small, low in the crown, and in shape intermediate between long and round. The width of the cheek-bones combined with the narrowness of the forehead gives the face a lozenge-shaped appearance. The forehead is slightly protruding, and the nose is broader and flatter than in any other race. The dark eyes are often narrow and slightly oblique. The average male is below five feet in stature. In both sexes there is a peculiar development of the buttocks, which is often extremely accentuated among the women. The racial mixture of the Bushmen with Negroes and possibly, with early invad- Description op Races 19 ing Hamites resulted in a slightly taller people called Hottentots, who possess a longer and narrower head and a more protruding face. The Hottentots formerly inhabited the western part of South Africa, but their tribal organiza- tion is preserved at present only in Southwest Africa. PYGMIES It has not yet been determined what genetic relation- ship exists between true Negroes, Pygmies (often called Negrillos), Bushmen, and Hottentots. Here a caution is necessary, since many small Negroid tribes of the central forest region are referred to as Pygmies. But some of these (for example, the Batwa represented in a bronze bust, No. 6) have probably issued from a crossing of Pygmies with Negroes. There are, however, groups of true Pygmies, the most tjHpical of which are the Wambuti of the Ituri Forest in the northeast Belgian Congo. Their dark brown hair is usually short. Their skin color varies from light brown with a yellow tinge to a very dark chocolate color. The average male stature is five feet two inches, and both the body and legs are short. There is a peculiar development of the buttocks similar to that of the Kalahari Bushmen. In shape the head is intermediate between long and round, and there is some protrusion of the face. The lips are full, and the root of the nose is flat and broad. HAMITES The Hamites, who inhabit north and northeast Africa, belong to the Caucasian branch of mankind. They possess dark brown or black hair, which is either curly or wavy in form, and the skin varies in color from reddish brown to dark brown. Their average stature is about five feet five inches, and their build is slender. The typical Hamite possesses a long head, an oval elongated face with no forward protrusion, thin lips, pointed chin, and a prominent, well-shaped, narrow nose. Two main divi- sions of Hamites must be recognized, the northern and 20 Field Museum of Natural History eastern. The principal northern Hamites are the Berbers and the Tuareg, who are confined to the Sahara region. The eastern group of Hamites comprises the Somali, Hadendoa, and Bisharin peoples. SEMITES These people, now living in north and northeast Africa, migrated from Arabia at an early date. They are medium in stature, long-headed and dark-haired, and possess elliptical faces with straight or convex noses. This group has intermarried with other racial divisions; for example, with Negroes, so that intermediate Arab- Negro types have been produced. We now proceed to a review of the sculptures in the hall. The Hamitic peoples from the north and northeast of Africa are represented by four examples. The bronze bust of an Abyssinian (No. 14) shows the fine, delicate features characteristic of the group. There is also the head of an Abyssinian woman (No. 3) carved out of black Belgian marble. The regularity of the features and the peculiar method of dressing the hair are particularly well portrayed by the medium employed. The bust of a Somali (No. 12) also exhibits the typical Hamitic features, while the Nubian (No. 15) shows a mixture of Hamitic and Negro blood. This man is from Luxor in Egypt, but the thickness of his lips differentiates him slightly from the typical Fellah of the Nile Valley. The Negroes of the Upper Nile Valley are represented by a noteworthy full-length statue — a Shilluk warrior (No. 9; Plate II). This dark-skinned man is six feet eight inches in height. He is standing on one leg in the peculiar pose characteristic of these people. The Mangbetu of the northeast Congo region are primarily a true Negro type; but the light brown skin of the aristocratic class suggests some Hamitic mixture. The bust of a Mangbetu woman (No. 7) is interesting for the peculiar mode of hair-dressing and the deformation of the head. The Description of Races 21 heads of children are bound tightly with bandages which force them to grow both long and narrow. The resulting deformation is considered a mark of beauty. The profile of this woman clearly shows the effects of this treatment. The Negro type is illustrated by two full-length figures which are complementary: a Senegalese drummer (No. 13) and a dancing girl of the Sara tribe (No. 5). These two statues, coated with a black patina, are shown in poses characteristic of the rhythmic movements asso- ciated with Negro music. The vivacious and graceful figure of the girl in dancing posture strikingly contrasts with the dreamy expression of the drummer. In Dahomey, a French possession on the Guinea coast of West Africa, occurs a true Negro type. A well-developed Dahomey man is shown in a bust (No. 8). The head of a woman (No. 11) from the Sudan shows the remarkable coiffure which is fashionable among her people. The head of a Ubangi duck-billed girl (No. 10) portrays one of the most remarkable artificial deformations in existence. A girl's lips are perforated, and small studs are inserted in order to broaden them. At intervals the size of the lip studs is increased, so that the lower lip eventually has to be supported from below by the hand. The central or equatorial peoples of Africa are represented by a life- size group of Ituri Forest Pygmies (No. 16). While the man beats rhythmically on the skin of the drum, his wife carrying her small baby listens attentively. The splendid Bushman family group (No. 1) shows a hunter accompanied by his wife, who carries the baby strapped to her back. In addition, there are the bust of a Bushman woman (No. 4) and the head of a man (No. 2) which portray well the racial characters of this primitive people. II. Europe The modem inhabitants of Europe can be divided into three groups — Mediterranean, Alpine, and Nordic. While there has been untold interbreeding of these basic stocks 22 Field Museum of Natural History since paleolithic times, it is still possible to adopt this classificatory system. The Mediterranean or brown race is exemplified by an Italian (No. 18), who is short in stature and light in build, with an olive complexion, dark hair and eyes, long head, narrow oval face, and a small mouth. This group is now mainly confined to the Iberian Peninsula, western Mediterranean islands, southern France and Italy, and the western part of Great Britain. The Alpine race comprises the majority of the round- headed peoples of Europe. They extend from the central plateau of France, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia south- ward into the Balkans and eastward into Russia. A typical member of this group possesses a fairly dark com- plexion, brown wavy hair, thick eyebrows over brown eyes, strong body hair, broad face, sometimes a thick neck, and a medium to heavy build. The Nordic peoples inhabit Scandinavia, northern Germany, and part of Holland and Belgium. There is also a strong Nordic element in Great Britain. A tall Swede, with light complexion and hair, blue eyes, long head, and face with a prominent nose and chin, is a typical member of this racial group. The racial divisions of Europe are represented by the full-length figures of a Sicilian fisherman (No. 18) who is shown with his fishing net, and a Nordic (No. 21). In this section are also displayed busts of a woman (No. 20) from Brittany, France, with her picturesque head-dress, and of a Basque (No. 22; Plate IV, Fig. 1) from northern Spain. There are also heads of an Anglo- Saxon (No. 19) and a Mediterranean (No. 17) of the type so often seen in France. III. Asia The study of the peoples of Asia is beset with numerous difficulties and presents many complex problems. In view of the evidence available it seems probable that man Description of Races 23 originated somewhere on this vast continent. A general survey of Asia is presented here based on six large geo- graphical divisions: southwest, south, southeast, east, central, and north. SOUTHWESTERN ASIA This area was originally inhabited by early members of the Mediterranean stock, which forms the basic popula- tion at the present time. The northern and southern extremities of this section are inhabited by round-headed peoples. For example, in Armenia and Anatolia the characteristic individual possesses dark hair, a tawny- white skin, medium stature, and a prominent aquiline nose with a depressed tip and large wings. Along the southern coast of Arabia the dominant type is round- headed, and there are also smaller groups, such as the Druzes, scattered along the west coast and in Mesopotamia (Iraq) on the east. As a representative of the great Arab group (No. 24) there was selected one of the workmen at Kish, where Field Museum and Oxford University have been conducting archaeological excavations on a large scale for ten seasons. The Jewish people, who form part of the great Mediter- ranean group, are divided into two stocks — the Ash- kenazim and the Sephardim. The former includes the Jews of Russia and of central and western Europe; while the latter comprises those of Spain, Portugal, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Arabia. According to Haddon, the original Jews were racially akin to the modem Beduins of northern Arabia and blended at an early date with Amorites, Philistines, and Hittites, from whom they acquired the so-called "Jewish" nose. This entire region, with the exception of certain isolated zones, has been overrun in historic times by numerous invasions so that the modem population is extremely mixed. In Persia the basic stock consists of two types — the Proto-Nordic and representatives of a branch of the Mediterranean race. There are also intrusive elements. I 24 Field Museum of Natural History such as the Kurds, Arabs, Armenians, and others who have settled in the country. Afghanistan is essentially the homeland of the Indo-Afghan stock, which is charac- terized by black, wavy hair, light, transparent brown complexions, long heads and faces, prominent, narrow noses, and dark eyes. An Afghan money lender (No. 33), clutching pieces of silver in his right hand, possesses the typical features of this group. The inhabitants of Balu- chistan are closely related to the Afghans. Among the Baluchi, however, the head is more round in shape, so that they may be classified among Indo-Iranian peoples. SOUTHERN ASIA There are three main geographical regions in India which appear to have influenced the principal racial groups. In the north lies the Himalayan chain of mountains; in the central northern portion are the sweeping plains called Hindustan; while to the south extends the great plateau, in many places jungle-covered, called the Deccan. With a varied population of about 350,000,000, racial origins in India are incapable of exact definition. In prehistoric times India was probably inhabited by a primitive Negroid population related to the aborigines of Ceylon, Sumatra, and possibly even Australia. It is believed also that at an early date Dravidian stocks entered India from the northwest frontier region and Mongoloid races from the northeast territory. Dravidian is the general term used by Haddon for the main population of the Deccan. The physical characters are a long head, abundant, wavy hair, brownish black skin, and medium stature. The Veddas of Ceylon are one of the most interesting primitive groups in India. They belong to the pre- Dravidian division, and their physical characters comprise long, black hair which is coarse and wavy, dark brown skin, short stature, and the smallest of human skulls. The form of the head is long and narrow and the forehead Leaflet 30 Plate VI BRONZE STATUE OF MIDDLE-AGED AINU, ISLAND OF YEZO, JAPAN Life size m UBAARf OF TH£ Description of Races 25 slightly retreating, with prominent brow ridges, a relatively broad face and nose, thin lips, and pointed chin. In the hall (section C) is shown a typical young Vedda (No. 23) with a bow by his right side. Among the full- length figures of bronze are a Tamil and a man from Kashmir. The Tamil occupy the northern half of the island of Ceylon and part of the mainland of southern India. They belong to the Dravidian group. A Tamil (No. 35) is shown in the act of climbing a large palm tree — a feat which is performed with uncanny skill. The Kashmiri from Gwalior (No. 27) is shown in the attitude of meditation. These people possess a light, transparent, brown skin, and are usually of relatively tall stature. The head is long with a well-developed forehead, a long, narrow face, regular features, and prominent, finely chiseled, narrow nose. Other figures in this section represent a Singhalese (No. 26) from Kandy in Ceylon; a man from Kashmir (No. 28); a woman (No. 25) from Rajputana belonging to the "untouchable" caste; a Brahman (No. 29) from Benares; and a man (No. 31) and a woman (No. 32) from Bengal. These sculptures show the refined features of the people of northern India. There is also the head of a beautiful Jaipur woman (No. 30) carved from lime- stone. It is remarkable for the regularity of her pleasing features. The Andaman Islands, located in the Indian Ocean, are inhabited by members of the Negrito group, which comprises the Semang of the Malay Peninsula and eastern Sumatra; the Aeta of the Philippine Islands, and the Tapiro of New Guinea. The Andamanese are represented by an individual (No. 36) seated on a rock with his large bow held in his left hand and an arrow drawn back to his right cheek. He possesses the characteristic features of his group, which are short, black hair (in others some- times with a reddish tinge), black skin, well-proportioned body, a small, round head, and small hands. The face is 26 Field Museum of Natural History broad, the lips full but not everted, and there is no projection of the jaws. The inhabitants of Burma represent southern Mon- goloid tjHpes, possessing black hair (almost absent on the face and body), round heads, broad faces and noses, and frequently oblique eyes. The color of the skin varies from yellow to brown according to locality. For example, the farther removed from China, the less yellow is the color of the skin. As a representative of these people, the head of a man (No. 34) is shown, and is interesting in comparison with the peoples of India and China. SOUTHEASTERN ASIA MALAY PENINSULA AND MALAY ARCHIPELAGO The population of this region may be divided into two sections — a large southern Mongoloid group and a group not included in this classification. In the dense jungles of the Malay Peninsula live the Semang and the Sakai. The former belong to the Negrito or Pygmy group, since they are five feet or less in stature. The hair is short and frizzy, black in color with a reddish tinge and sparse on the face and body. The skin is dark chocolate brown in color. The shape of the head tends to be round; the lips are generally thin; the nose is short, flat, and extremely broad. The Semang also inhabit the eastern portion of the island of Sumatra. The representative of this group is a Pygmy hunter (No. 64) with his long blow-gun poised for shooting a bird from a leafy tree top. In the southern part of the Malay Peninsula also live the Sakai, who represent the second element among the aboriginal tribes of this region. They have intermarried considerably with the Negritos in the north and the Proto- Malays in the south. They differ from the Negritos in the lighter color of their skins, in their greater stature, and in their long, wavy, or curly hair, which is black with a reddish tinge. The Sakai belong to the pre- Dravidian group, being related to the Veddas of Ceylon Description of Races 27 and to the primitive jungle tribes of southern India. The head of the Sakai (No. 63) was modeled by Miss Hoffman in ninety minutes in the Malayan jungle. There is still a third primitive group in the Malay Peninsula. The Jakun, sometimes called "Savage Malays," possess a dark red or coppery-brown skin and straight, dark, coarse hair. The head is round with high cheek- bones and dark eyes with a tendency to obliquity. Busts of a Jakun man (No. 65) and a girl (No. 67) are shown. In marked contrast to these primitive types, there is a pure type of Malay (No. 61) whose features express a high grade of intelligence compared with the Jakun. The Malayan family (or, as it is also called, Indo- nesian) is distributed over the greater portion of the Malay Archipelago. It may be divided into the following groups: the Malay proper of the Malay Peninsula; the aborigines of the Philippines, Borneo, and Celebes; the Javanese and Sundanese of Java and Bali; and the Bataks of Sumatra. There are also scattered members of this family in Formosa and Madagascar. A typical Malayan is relatively short in stature; has dark, wavy hair, tawny yellow-colored skin ; lozenge-shaped face, prominent cheek- bones, and slightly projecting jaws. The shape of the head varies markedly from long to round, with the former as the probable basic shape. The types selected from the peoples of the Malay Archipelago represent a Dyak from Sarawak in Borneo (No. 62), who bears an elaborate tattooed design on his chest; a boy (No. 69) and a young girl (No. 71) from Java; and an attractive woman from the picturesque island of Bali (No. 70). There is also a composite group of figures representing various people of the Archipelago (No. 73). These are a pair of cockfighters intent on their national sport, watched by a girl from Bali with a platter of fruit balanced on her head, and a small boy from Java eating a banana. In physical type the two men are similar, 28 Field Museum of Natural History although one is from Borneo and the other from the island of Madura, situated off the north coast of Java. EASTERN ASIA CHINA AND JAPAN The present Republic of China extends over an area which may exceed 4,000,000 square miles, with a popula- tion of about 400,000,000 within the boundary of China proper. The Chinese represent a single racial unit, which has had sufficient strength to maintain its culture and traditions in the face of numerous invaders. The Chinese as a whole are medium in stature. The shape of the head is intermediate between long and round, the skin yellowish brown in color, eyes oblique with the Mongolian fold, and hair straight and black. There are, according to Buxton, two types of northern Chinese, one of which appears to be allied to the southern Chinese, and the other to the eastern Tibetans. From statistical data it can be shown that there is a tall element in the population, only paralleled among the neighboring Tibetans. The people of southern China belong to the same group as the northerners, but there are certain remarkable differences. In southern China the stature is less and the head is shorter in length, which increases the cephalic index as the breadth remains fairly constant. The width of the nose appears slightly greater, which may be due to the increase of heat and moisture of the climate. The color of the skin appears to be darker in the south. As representatives of the racial types of China, the following are on exhibition: the full-length figure of a Chinese coolie (No. 49) posed in the shafts of his jinriksha; and the bust of a Cantonese woman (No. 40) of the peasant class, over her shoulder a bamboo pole, which is used for carrying loads. There are also a bronze bust of a Chinese scholar (No. 41) and a stone bust of an attractive lady (No. 42) in her ornamented robes. In prehistoric times the Ainu were the earliest inhabit- ants of the islands which now comprise the Japanese Leaflet 30 Plate VII BRONZE STATUE OF PRIEST, LHASA, TIBET Life size Muma «... fl'We Description of Races 29 empire. At present confined to the northern island of Yezo, the Kuriles, and the southern portion of Saghalin Island, they differ from the Japanese and all other Mon- golian races in their luxuriant black beards, the bushy and wavy head hair, and the general hairiness of other parts of the body. The color of the skin resembles that of the tanned central European. Medium in stature, the average Ainu is thick-set, with a head intermediate in shape between long and round, and a broad face, which does not project markedly. The narrow nose is short and concave. The large horizontal eyes are usually dark brown in color. The racial position of the Ainu is a question of considerable interest. They represent a prehistoric stock, which has been markedly specialized. There are two distinct types of modem Japanese, one of which possesses fine features, while the other is more coarse in type. Both possess certain traits in common. The hair is always black and may be curly in form, especially where influenced by Ainu blood. In general, the stature is short, although there is considerable varia- tion. The cephalic index and skin color are also variable characters. The color of the eyes is dark brown. In order to differentiate between the two classes, it will be necessary to make some comparisons. The fine or aristocratic type is tall and slender, with an elongated face, prominent, narrow, arched nose, eyes either straight or oblique, and the epicanthic fold rarely absent. The coarse type, which may represent immigrants from southeastern Asia, is short and stocky, with a broad face, short, concave nose with roimded nostrils, an oblique eye, usually an epicanthic fold, and a darker complexion than the other group. As representatives of these islands are shown the bust of a Japanese man (No. 51) and a yoimg woman (No. 50). The life-size statue of a middle-aged Ainu (No. 52) is a most important contribution to the study of this racial type. The Ainu are a shy and retiring people, but, 30 Field Museum op Natural History with generous local assistance, Malvina Hoffman was able to model the Ainu in question. She likewise modeled the head of a young man of this primitive tribe (No. 53). CENTRAL AND NORTHERN ASIA Central Asia comprises Tibet, Chinese Turkestan, and Mongolia. Northern Asia is practically identical with Siberia, which covers approximately one-quarter of the entire continent. The vast area of northern Asia is divided by the Yenisei River into western and eastern Siberia. The inhabitants may be grouped as Palaeo- Siberians and Neo-Siberians. The latter, ' who inhabit chiefly the western geographical division, are a miscel- laneous group including the Finnish-speaking tribes, Samoyeds, and Turkish groups. Among the Palaeo-Asiatics are the Chukchi of north- eastern Siberia; the Koryak, who live between the Anadir River and Kamchatka; and the Kamchadal. The Gilyak, Ainu, and those Eskimo who live on the Asiatic side of Bering Straits, are sometimes included in this division. The physical characters are black hair, brown or reddish- colored sparse beard, yellowish white or brown skin, some- times with a flat face, prominent cheek-bones, oblique eyes, and a straight or concave nose. The head form varies from intermediate to round, although traces of a very ancient long-headed stock are definitely present. On exhibition in Hall 3 is a seated figure of a Tibetan priest from Lhasa (No. 44), his brow furrowed, deep in meditation. There are also the portrait head of a Tibetan woman from Lhasa (No. 45), and the head of a Mongol priest (No. 38) from Outer Mongolia. The head of an Eskimo man (No. 39) and a woman (No. 37) are shown in the Asiatic division of the hall, because of their close racial affinities with the Mongoloid group whose physical characters they possess. They are, however, short in stature, with long and high head, flat and broad face, prominent cheek-bones, narrow prominent nose, and remarkably small hands and feet. Description of Races 31 IV. America Before the advent of European peoples the population of the Americas consisted of aborigines, called by Columbus Indians. From a historical viewpoint they are the true Americans. Moreover, up to the present time, there is no definite archaeological evidence for the existence of any pre-Indian peoples or cultures. It is generally con- ceded that the Indians are of Mongoloid stock. They entered the New World at least fifteen thousand years ago in a series of migrations extending over many years. Small groups probably crossed Bering Straits, either because of pressure from hostile tribes or in search of new himting grounds. Traveling south and east, they gradually spread over North, Central, and South America. The theory of waves of migration is corroborated by the fact that on either side of Bering Straits the country is incapable of supporting a large population, and by the fact that the American Indians, while possessing many traits in common, often show differentiation in variable physical characters. I The constant physical characters of the American Indians consist of a brown skin which frequently bears a reddish or yellowish tinge; dark eyes; straight, coarse, black hair; a minimum of beard and body hair; and a broad face with high and prominent cheek-bones. The head is usually round, although there are certain groups in which long heads predominate. With regard to stature, this character also varies in different groups. The tallest people inhabited the region of the Mississippi Valley and extended for some distance to the north and east. Among the Plains Indians and the tribes of the Northern and Eastern Woodlands there is little variation of the above characters. The Northwest Coast Indians, however, possess lighter skin and hair than do the other groups. They are medium in stature, with short bodies and long arms, and apparently are closely allied to the natives of northeastern Asia. The tribes north of this general region, including the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsim- 32 Field Museum of Natural History shian, are above the average in stature. They have large heads with extremely broad faces and concave or straight noses. In the southern part of this region, as, for example, among the Kwakiutl, the people are less tall, and are round-headed, with broad, high faces, and very high, narrow noses, which are frequently convex in shape. These Indians inhabit the northwest coast from Lat. 60° north to the northern boundary of the state of Washington. In the hall are shown a magnificent Blackfoot Indian (No. 55; Plate VIII) in the pose he adopts at the end of a successful hunt; and the head of a Sioux brave (No. 56). The Eskimo form a definite group, clearly of Asiatic origin. In many respects they are the most Mongoloid of all Americans. They are distinguished by a short, stocky build; markedly long heads, combined with very broad faces (an unusual feature in a people with a long skull); massive jaws; and narrow noses. The sides of the head are often flat, and a ridge may be present down the center of the skull. The eyes frequently show the Mon- goloid fold. For purposes of comparison the Eskimos have been placed in the Asiatic section (p. 30). In Mexico and Central America the average stature is medium to short, and round heads predominate, although the evidence suggests that the first inhabitants were long- headed and were conquered by these later invaders. The Indians of South America bear, in general, the physical characters common to the whole race. It is believed that they entered that continent through a succes- sion of migrations by way of the Isthmus of Panama. From time to time it has been asserted that early human remains have been discovered in America; for example, in Argentina, primitive types of Tertiary fossil man were reported; but all alleged evidence of this character has been discredited. As in the case of North America, no definite archaeological evidence of early man has come to light. The oldest burials reveal long-headed Leaflet 30 Plate VIII BRONZE STATUE OF BLACKFOOT INDIAN, NORTH AMERICA Life size if itt Description of Races 33 t3T)es. At the present time traces of this character are found in peoples with a marginal or isolated distribution. V. Oceania Oceania is the area which extends from Australia to Easter Island and from New Zealand northward to Hawaii, and includes all the island groups of the Pacific Ocean. The consensus of opinion is that man first entered the Pacific area from southeastern Asia. There have also been several important waves of migration, which add to the complexity of the racial problems involved. The six principal racial divisions in Oceania include the inhabitants of Australia, Tasmania, Melanesia, New Guinea, Polynesia, and Micronesia. AUSTRALIA Australia is the smallest continent, in area being approximately the same size as the United States. In general, the physical traits of the Australian aborigines are uniform throughout the continent, although there are numerous minor variations. Archaeological evidence suggests that man entered this continent at a very early date and that he remained but little changed by outside factors until the arrival of the first Europeans in 1606. The physical characters of the aboriginal Australian are jet black wavy or curly hair, which is often well developed on the face; dark chocolate brown skin; medium stature; and a long head with a fiat, retreating forehead, prominent brow ridges, projecting face, and a deeply set, broad nose. TASMANIA The Tasmanians became extinct during the latter part of the nineteenth century. They were of medium height, had black to dark brown skins, woolly hair, and heavy brow ridges. The face was long, oval, or pentagonal in shape, while the head was sloping and small in size. The nose was short and broad, and the teeth were large. In general, the physical characters and primitive culture of 34 Field Museum of Natural History the Tasmanians were similar to those of the Australians. There is reason to suppose that they were part of the same group which migrated into that region at an early date. MELANESIA The name is derived from the black skin color of the peoples who inhabit these islands. This area embraces the Bismarck Archipelago, northeast of New Guinea, the Louisiade, Solomon, Santa Cruz, New Hebrides and Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, and small inter- vening groups. While a large Papuan element prevails throughout the population of Melanesia, there have also been several movements of racial stocks from Indonesia. The result of these minglings of peoples is that the modem population shows considerable variation and is by no means homogeneous in character. The hair of the Melanesians is usually woolly, but may be either curly or wavy. The skin ranges from very dark to light brown. The stature varies from short to medium. The head is usually long in shape, but there are isolated round-headed groups. The forehead is commonly rounded, and the brow ridges are rarely prominent. The nose is broad, sometimes straight, and broader than that of the Papuan. NEW GUINEA The inhabitants of New Guinea and the adjacent island groups belong to the woolly-haired branch of mankind. There is considerable variety of racial type, which is subdivided into Negritos, Papuans, and Melanesians. Typical Negritos are the Tapiro Pygmies of the western mountains in Dutch New Guinea, who can be compared with the inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, the Semang Pygmies of the central part of the Malay Peninsula and eastern Sumatra, and the Negritos of the Philippines.. The hair of the Tapiro is short, black in color, and abundant on face and body. The skin is yellowish brown in color. In stature the average Tapiro is four feet nine inches. The head shows considerable variation in shape. Description of Races 35 the nose is straight and of medium breadth. A trait frequent among them and among other Negritos is that the upper Hp is deep and convex. The Papuans are dark-skinned, short in stature, and long-headed. The black hair is often long and may be abundant on the face. The forehead is retreating, the brow ridges are prominent, and the lower part of the face projects markedly. The broad nose is often prominent and convex, while the tip is sometimes turned down. The Papuans now inhabit the greater part of New Guinea, and were originally distributed throughout Melanesia. Formerly they were probably in parts of Australia and certainly as a variety in Tasmania. POLYNESIA This area of the central Pacific region includes the numerous groups and small islands mostly situated south of the equator. The two islands of New Zealand are the largest of the entire area, which also includes the Hawaiian, Society and Marquesan groups, as well as Tonga and Samoa. The origin of the Polynesians remains in con- siderable doubt, but it is believed that at an early date they migrated into this large area from southeastern Asia. The Polynesian is of good appearance and average to tall in stature, the hair being straight or wavy in form and black in color. The skin varies from that of a South European to several shades of brown. The shape of the head is round, but there are smaller divisions of people with long or intermediate shaped heads. In general form the face is elliptical with relatively prominent cheek-bones, and a prominent nose generally straight as among the Maori, but sometimes convex. MICRONESIA To the north of Melanesia lie countless islands includ- ing the Marianne, Caroline, Marshall, and Gilbert groups, which together form the area known as Micronesia. The population is extremely mixed, containing certain Mela- 36 Field Museum of NATUtiAL History nesian, Polynesian, and Malaysian influences. The skin color ranges from brown to nearly yellow, and the hair is wavy or straight, but in the west some individuals are very dark-skinned with frizzly hair, while others are light- skinned with wavy or straight hair. The eyes are almost black and the cheek-bones relatively prominent. In stature the Micronesians are medium and are not so robust as the Polynesians. In the hall various representatives of the peoples of Oceania are shown. Australia is represented by the full- length figures of a man (No. 72), a woman and child (No. 68), and the head of a woman (No. 66). The man is shown in a characteristic pose with his primitive wooden spear poised for throwing and a boomerang in his left hand (Plate IX). On his body are deep scars made by searing the flesh with knives. The Solomon Islander (No. 60) in the act of climbing a date palm represents the Melanesian group. Around his neck is a crescent- shaped shell, and he wears a nose-ring. Two men from Hawaii (Nos. 57 and 58) and the bust of a Samoan (No. 59) are characteristic of the Polynesian group. There is a full-length Hawaiian on his surf-board as he speeds toward the beach. The Samoan, who holds a large knife against his right shoulder, also displays the wonderful physique of the Polynesian. The exhibits in the hall are not yet completed. A number of bronze busts and heads will be added from time to time. Also, colored transparencies of racial types will be installed, and a section at the east end of the hall will be devoted to special scientific exhibits. Henry Field Leaflet 30 Rate IX rKKK BRONZE STATUE OF AUSTRALIAN Life size m UBRARf OF THt ewV£RE;;r Of lUHUtt BIBLIOGRAPHY Boas, F.— The Mind of Primitive Man. New York, 1911. Anthropometry. New York, 1912. Descendants of Immigrants. New York, 1912. Anthropology and Modern Life. New York, 1928. British Museum. — Guide to the Specimens Illustrating the Races of Mankind in British Museum. London, 1921. Buxton, L. H. D. — The Peoples of Asia. London, 1925. Carr-Saunders, a. M. — The Population Problem. Oxford, 1922. Deniker, J. — The Races of Man: an outline of anthropology and ethnography. New York, 1906. Haddon, a. C— The Study of Man. New York, 1898. The Races of Man, and Their Distribution. Cambridge, 1924; New York, 1925. Herskovits, M. J. — Social Selection and the . Formation of Human Types. Human Biology, I, 1929, pp. 250-262. HooTON, E. A. — The Indians of Pecos Pueblo, a study of their skeletal remains. New Haven, 1930. Hrdlicka, a.— Physiological and Medical Observations among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 34, Washington, 1908. Anthropometry. The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, 1920. JOCHELSON, W. — Peoples of Asiatic Russia. American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1928. Kroeber, a. — Anthropology. New York, 1923. Martin, R. — Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstel- lung. 3 vols., Jena, 1928. Ripley, W. Z. — The Races of Europe, a sociological study, accom- panied by a supplementary bibliography of the anthropology and ethnology of Europe. London, 1900. RiSLEY, Sir H. H.— The People of India. London, 1908. Seligman, C. G. — Races of Africa. London, 1930. Seligman, C. G. and Z. B.— The Veddas. Cambridge, 1911. Sollas, W. J. — Ancient Hunters. London, 1915. Stibbe, E. p. — An Introduction to Physical Anthropology. London, 1930. Sullivan, L. R. — Essentials of Anthropometry. American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1923. Wallis, W. D.— Race and Culture. The Scientific Monthly, XXIII, 1926, pp. 313-321. 37 u u u u 1^ ^ u u y u A O C D n n n n lt^°^ n n H n OKNCRAl. PLAN Or HALL 3 I) OCEANIA f\ AFRICA ASIA SPECIAL EXHIBITS D ASIA SPECIAL EXHIBITS PLAN OF HALL 3 LIST OF SCULPTURES BY MALVINA HOFFMAN Unless stated otherwise the material is bronze. An asterisk denotes life-size, full-length figures, the remainder are heads or busts. I. AFRICA *1. Bushman family, Kalahari Desert, South Africa. 2. Old Bushman, same locality. 3. Woman, Abyssinia (black marble). 4. Bushman woman, Kalahari Desert, South Africa. *5. Negro dancing girl, Sara tribe, Lake Chad district. Age 15. Stature 5 feet 7 inches. 6. Batwa boy with filed teeth, Belgian Congo. 7. Mangbetu woman, Belgian Congo, Central Africa. 8. Negro, Dahomey, West Africa. *9. Shilluk warrior, Upper White Nile, East Africa. Age 25. Stature 6 feet 8 inches. 10. Ubangi woman, French Equatorial Africa. 11. Woman, Sudan. 12. Somali, East Africa. *13. Negro drummer, Senegal. Age 25. Stature 6 feet 1 inch. 14. Hamite, Abyssinia. 15. Nubian. *16. Pygmy group, Ituri Forest, Belgian Congo. II. EUROPE 17. Mediterranean, French type. *18. Mediterranean type represented by fisherman from Sicily. 19. Anglo-Saxon, England. 20. Woman, Brittany, France. *21. Nordic type. 22. Basque, northern Spain. III. ASIA *23. Vedda, Ceylon. Age 28. Stature 5 feet 6 inches. 24. Arab, Kish, Iraq. 25. Rajput woman, India, belonging to a low caste ("untouchables"). 26. Singhalese, Kandy, Ceylon. *27. Kashmiri in attitude of meditation, Gwalior, India. Age 25. Stature 5 feet 9 inches. 28. Kashmiri, India. 29. Brahman, Benares, India. Age 35. 30. Woman (stone), Jaipur, India. 31. Bengali, India. 32. Bengali woman, India. 33. Afghan, Peshawar, India. Age 40. 34. Burmese. *35. Tamil in the act of climbing a tree, India. 39 THE LIBRARY OF THI 40 Field Museum of Natural History Q F P W 1933 *36. Andaman Islander, India. 37. Eskimo woman, North America. UNIVERSITY OF ILLIN 38. Mongol, Outer Mongolia. 39. Eskimo, North America. 40. Cantonese woman, southern China. Age 35. 41. Chinese, type of scholar, central China. 42. Chinese woman (stone), type of scholar. 43. Chinese, type of scholar. *44. Priest, Lhasa, Tibet, seated cross-legged. Age 51. Stature 5 feet 5 inches. 45. Woman, Lhasa, Tibet. 46. Chinese laborer. 47. Chinese (stone), Shanghai. 48. Manchu, Peiping, China. *49. Chinese jinriksha coolie. North Chinese type. Age 30. Stature 5 feet 3 inches. 50. Japanese woman. Age 24. 61. Japanese. *52. Ainu, Island of Yezo (Hokkaido), northern Japan. Age 57. Stature 5 feet 1 inch. 53. Young Ainu, same locality. IV. AMERICA *55. Blackfoot Indian, United States. Age 28. Stature 6 feet. 56. Sioux Indian, United States. V. OCEANIA AND AUSTRALIA *57. Hawaiian riding on a surf-board, Polynesia. Age 21. Stature 5 feet 10 inches. 58. Hawaiian, Polynesia. 59. Samoan, Polynesia. *60. Solomon Islander climbing a tree, Melanesia. 61. Malay, Malay Peninsula. 62. Dyak, Borneo. 63. Sakai, Tupah, Malay Peninsula. Stature 4 feet 8 inches. *64. Semang Pygmy, Johore, Malay Peninsula. Stature 4 feet 5 inches. 65. Jakun, Johore, Malay Peninsula. Age 40. Stature 5 feet 1 inch. 66. Australian woman. 67. Jakun woman, Johore, Malay Peninsula. Age 26. Stature 4 feet 10 inches. *68. Australian mother and child. 69. Man, Java. 70. Woman, Bali. 71. Woman, Java. *72. Australian. *73. Group of cockfighters, Madura, Borneo, Java, Bali. *74. Group symbolizing unity of mankind, consisting of three statues representing a white, a black, and a yellow man.